Wednesday, 29 September 2010
For this question we specifically asked 28 people what gender they are. 14 people where male and 14 where female, beacsue of these results the documentary will include aspects that male audiences can relate to
My results show that the mojority of the people i asked were 15-20 years old, this will help to deside the target audience of the documentary
Tuesday, 28 September 2010
15-20 21-25 26-30 31-40 41 +
3. What celeb do you think are famous for their hair?
4. How often do you watch TV?
Everyday Every week Every month Never
5. Do you ever watch documentaries?
6. What Channel do you usually watch documentries on?
7. What time would you expect to see a documentary?
12pm – 4pm 4pm – 7pm 7pm - 10pm 10pm+
8. Do you prefer a male or a female voice over?
9. How long does it take you to get ready in the morning?
5-15 minutes 15-30 minutes 30 minutes – 1hour 1 hour or more
10. How long do you spend on your hair?
5- 10 minutes 10- 15 minutes 15-30 minutes 1 hour or more
11. How often do you go the hairdressers?
Every week Every other week Monthly Every other month
Every 6 months
12. What straighteners do you use?
GHD’s Remmington Babylis Other None
13. Do you follow Hair fashion?
14. Do you buy hair magazines?
Yes No Sometimes
15. If yes, do you use the hair advice in them?
16. What hair products do you buy?
Shampoo Hair gel Conditioner Hair protector Hair serum
Hairspray Hair Wax Hair mousse
17. What length is your hair?
Short Long Mid Length
18. What colour is your hair?
19. How many times do you look in the mirror to fix your hair?
Every time you see a mirror Occasionally Most of the time Never
20. Do you wear your hair the same every day?
21. How would you describe your image? (Indie, Punk, Unusual)
22. How important is your hair to you? ( 1 being very- 5 not at all)
1 2 3 4 5
23. Do you dye your hair?
24. Which celeb’s hair do you admire?
25. How much do you spend on getting your hair done?
£3- £10 £11 £25 £25- £50 £51- £75 £76- £100 More
26. What would the limit be for you to pay to get your hair done?
Time line of hair styles - Victorian times, 50s, 60s, 70s, 80s, 90s, 00s.
Hairdressers - For older people, For younger people.
High end hairdressers.
Cheaper hair cuts.
Hair accessories - Clips, Clamps, Bobbles.
Different hair types - Ethnic hair.
Natural hair - Never been dyed.
Hair colours - Brown, Blond, Purple, Red, Ginger.
Hair Extensions - Natural, Fake, Prices.
Different hair styles - Bouffants, Pony tails, Buns, Braids, Plats, Perms.
Cost of hair cuts.
Crazy Hair cuts - Spiky, Cover over.
Hair cuts - Bobs, Trim, Shave.
Boys Hair - Short, Long.
Time line of boys hair - 60s, 70s, 80s, 90s, 00s.
Wigs - Victorian, Barrister
Sunday, 26 September 2010
Saturday, 25 September 2010
The target audience for these segments is as follows:
BBC1 - older target audience, e.g. Homes Under Hammer
BBC2 - Both young children and adults e.g. CBeebies for young children and Open Gardens for adults
ITV1 - Housewives/women, e.g. Loose Women
Channel 4 - Young adults, e.g. Friends
Channel 5 - Both adults and children, e.g. Milkshake for children and House Doctor for adults.
Evening and Post Watershed:
BBC1 - Young/older adults e.g. Eastenders
BBC2 - Adults e.g. Culture Show Special
ITV1 - Adults e.g Emmerdale
Channel 4 - Young adults e.g. The Simpsons
Channel 5 - Adults e.g. RoboCop 2 targeted at adults because it contains violence
The target audiences for each of the terrestrial channels:
BBC1 - Adults e.g. The One Show
BBC2 - Mixture e.g CBBC and Mock The Week
ITV1 - Adults with more of an aim to women e.g. 60 Minute Makeover
Channel 4 - Younger Adults e.g. The Simpsons, Hollyoaks and Friends
Channel 5 -Mixture e.g Home and Away and RoboCop 2
The estimated percentage of each channel's shedules which are taken up with repeats:
BBC1 - 12%
BBC2 - 10%
ITV1 - 5%
Channel 4 - 10%
Channel 5 - 15%
There is a small percentage of repeats on each of the channels which may be done in order to make more people watch the specific programme's at that set time, leading to a bigger audience.
Channels 4 and 5 have more imported programmes in their schedules. On Channel 4 there is Desperate Housewives and on Channel 5 there is Neighbours, Home and Away and CSI Miami.
The term Watershed is the name given to television programmes which are shown after 9 O'clock because the programmes that are shown arent suitable for younger people. For example on ITV1 Grandma's House is shown at 10 O'clock which is after the watershed showing it may contain bad images or contain adult humour.
• TV companies want to reach the right audience for a particular programme.
• Inheritance - scheduling a programme after a popular programme in order to inherit some of it's audience.
• Pre-echo - Scheduling a programme before a popular programme, hoping viewers will tune in early and enjoy the previous programme.
• Hammocking - a programme is scheduled inbetween two popular programmes. Remote controls have an imact on this. Satellite, cable and freeview audiences have a much more active role in their television experience then they used to, can create their own TV schedules. Also with Sky+ audiences can pause live TV.
• Watershed - The watershed is after 9 O'clock, after which programmes contain stronger language, sexual scenes, violence, drugs and alcohol.
• Narrowcasting - this is another example of scheduling, it gives the audience specific choice and stops them using their remote control. Examples of TV programmes which do this are The Disney Channel, Wedding TV, Nickelodeon, Living and many more
Friday, 24 September 2010
Diegetic and non-diegetic material
Style of documentary matches the genre of/subject of documentary
Images relating to.illustrating voice-over
Interviewee looks off camera with a space next to them (same side as they look into -'looking space')
Documentary type suits the tv channel and audience
Talking head interviews
Music(non-diegetic sound) matches ganre and/or audience
Mise-en-scene signifies what the subject is/documentary
Handheld camera work, to make the audience feel involved
Cutaways, to keep the audience interested(not just interviews)
Factual and informative
Thursday, 23 September 2010
Narrative Structure- Starts by showing us the children (the fighters) and then we meet their parents and throughout the documentry we see them train and at the end they show the competition that all the training has been for.
Camera work- The camera work in this documentry is done well as they use various shots allowing the audience to see different boxing positions. They use many close ups of the children when they are talking about their fights and the use mid-shots of the parents, this shows they arent as important as the children.
Mise-En-Scene- Mostly the fighting ring when one of the dad's is being interviewed this symbolises that this is a big part to their lifestyle. When he is fighting it is in a pub this shows that the sport is rough and wtahced by older people.
Editing- Interview, then when editing they use cut-aways to symbolise what he is saying. They show pictures of him when he was in his first fight when he was younger. They added slow motion into the fight as the young boy kicked up high.
Archive material- video of the young boy fighting in bangkok.
This Documentry is targetted to people who enjoy fighting- kararte, boxing or any other ones. And mostly s targetted to a Larger male audience than woman.
Wednesday, 22 September 2010
This Documentry is 1 hour long and it is on bbc3. Narrative structure is that it starts off with a young boy working out in the gym and the other two young bodybuilders, then we see him at home cooking and then at the end of the episode he is in the world championships.
Camera work- there are close-ups of the family members when they are being interviewed, this allows the audience to see the real facial expressions of the family members when talking. This Documentry appeals to people who work out, and teenagers as the term babyfaced means young. When Danny the main bodybuilder is interviewed he is either in the gym or at home. Also when is coach is interviewed he is in the gym with Danny but Danny is working out behind him as he is speaking.
Sound- Female voice over as it makes the bodybuilders seem more masculine compared to the woman voice over.
Editing- Not much editing is used in this documentry. One bit is when The young girl who wants to be a body builder is on the train and then it cuts to see her idol and then it cuts to see her in her house with the body builder.
There is archive material used of a World Champion bodybuilder winning at the competition, also they use pictures of other older body builders to relate to how Danny( the baby faced body builder) wants to look.
Tuesday, 21 September 2010
This Documentry is much shorter than any other ones we have watched therefor there is not as much information that we can add.
Narrative structure begins with Lara Croft being in a playstation game as a cartoon character, it then moves on to her being seen as a sex symbol then ends back with the video game again.
Camera work- there are plenty of close-ups which focus entirely on Lara Croft's assets, this portrays it as being a documentary targeted specifically at young men as this would appeal to them. With this appealing to more younger men it would make more money as more men will buy the game. When interviewing Angelina Jolie herself she is filmed in a close up which is directly on her face, this shows her importance to the documentary. There is also talking heads used which is were the interviewee is filmed in front of a blue or green screen so that the editing later on is a lot easier.
Sound- Non-diegetic sound is used with music it is used to add effect and make the game seem more exciting and fast-paced.
A male voice-over is used which fits in with the target audience being men.
Editing- When the man is being interviewed it has been edited into a laptop screen to give the audience the impression we are watching the interview straight from that which may also make them seem more involved. The editing is very action based meaning it is fast paced and eye-catching to watch. This documentary also contains talking heads which are then added into the background with the video game itself. Lots of cutaway shots are used in the video game and they are used in order to reinforce the style.
There is archive material used of Angelina Jolie in the video game, of the playstation game and also of images of magazines.
Graphics- The most noticeable graphic is of Lara Croft's name across the screen which is in white and is bold making it stand out against the black background
Narrative Structure- The narrative structure starts with Marilyn Manson and then we find out about the nun being killed. 12-15 minutes into the documentry the enigma code is being answered. Within the documentry there is a wide range of interviews. There are different segments throughout the whole of the documentry and then the narrative closes.
The camera work used in this documentry has been thought about carefully to make the documentry the best it could be. There was an establishing shot with the woman in the graveyard and this signifies that they have started a new scene. They use held hand camera work to make it look more realistic and is used to draw the audience in. The hand held camera work symbolises realism for example coming out ogf the court when a decision hasnt been made.
Mise-En-Scene- There is a journalist and he is sitting infront of books and a religious pster. Also in the tsreet, the lights are red so it has connotations of death. With the police officer(detective scene) in his office, showing he has authority. The killers friends getting interviewed shows there not as important and more informal as they are smoking and laughing on the screen this shows how they arent as bothered as any other things.
Sound- They use a person speaking and a translator. There is non-diegetic music, soft mellow music to make the audience gain more sympathy. Also in the documnetry they use non-diegetic sound to show the phone ringing and when the heartbeat is being played, this shows tension for the audience. They use good sound affects of the crime when the girls are confessing. The voice over is a man with a low tone and it makes it looko more authorative.
Editing- Interview, then when editing they use cut-aways to symbolise what he is saying.
Archive material- Marilyn Manson concert, as it has been took from somehwere else.
Graphics- Black background, the christian cross as the T. The words look like they are made with metal.
Consistant graphics throughout the whole of the documentry.
This documentry is only targetted to a niche 9 small and specific0 audience.
Monday, 20 September 2010
Narrative structure= The first 5/6 minutes of this documentry uses its narrative sturcture to set the scene with the section being about the music industry and the awards. The next scene is being focused on Meat Loaf himself and talks about his downfall. It then finishes with MeatLoafs success with him having a number 1 for 8 weeks.
Within this documentry they use alot of hand-held camerawork at the beginning whilst on the red carpet in order to make it more exciting and dramatic and make the audience feel like they are really there.
There is a point of view shot which is used to put the audience into that specific situation which is used in order to engage the audience and make them continue to watch the documentary.
A low angle shot is used on the person speaking at the awards, this is done in order to show his importance as it makes the audience look up to him.
Mise en secene= Meat Loaf is used as the background for the voice-overs in order to keep the audience intrigued into the documentary so it doesn't get boring. The interviewee is also filmed infront of a blue or green screen so that the background of the interview can easily be edited out.
When interviewing there is also a background of Meat Loafs CD which fits into the conversation when talking about the 2 different CD front covers they are comparing.
There is also a mise-en-scene of Virgin to communicate were the interviewee is from as it shows which company he is interviewing from. The logo of the company is presented in the bottom left hand side corner.
Sound= In this documentry non-diegetic sound is used when the audience is screaming and this is used in order to convey his success.
There is also a voice-of-god used of male voice which related to the fact that the documentary is about a male artist and fits in well, the voice is also formal as it is a public event which they are watching.
The music used builds up as it gets to the chorus of the song in order to add impact to the main part of the song.
Editing= In this documentary editing is mostly noticable on the interviews, a fade-in fad-out is used when the interviewee is presented, this makes them seem more important and in authority.
The editing is fast in order to create pace and energy. When the documentary goes from the music video onto the interview with Meat loaf there are lots of cross-fades of several different things in order to make it seem more exciting and intriguing.
Throughout the documentary lots of archive material is used mainly using still images for example an image of Meat loafs CD. There is also archive material of Meat loaf performing and his music video's.
Lots of graphic images are used at the beginning which from the very beginning of the documentry draws in the audiences attention. The opening credits are done in a very different way as they are presented as a magazine front cover with several small sound bites.
The logo name is written under the interviewee in order to give the company their identity.
There is also Gothic typography used when the quotes are going across the middle of the screen in order to reinforce the genre of music this documentary is about.
Friday, 17 September 2010
There are lots of different techniques which a documentary can employ. One style is expository which is characterised by a ‘voice-of-god’ narration which addresses the viewer directly. The meaning of the images are anchored by the voice-over and states the texts preferred meaning. This type of documentary is usually centred on a problem which needs solving.
Another style is Observational which is often known as “fly-on-the-wall”, it began with the direct cinema techniques. Through this, lightweight camera equipment was used in order to allow crews to film right in the middle of the action which created more drama and excitement.
Observational narrative avoids commentary or voice-over and the camera is as unobtrusive as possible. The techniques used are indirect address to the audience, meaning it is not initially directed at the audience. Diegetic sound is also used in relatively long takes in order to demonstrate that nothing has been cut out. This type of documentary tends to focus on specific individuals meaning events tend to unfold in front of the camera with the film-makers having no knowledge of the outcome.
The problem with this style of documentary is that it is impossible to create a genuine ‘window on the world’ because the presence of a camera in the situation affects the people who are being observed causing them to act differently around the camera. Also, the director can make editing choices which mean that observational documentary is as full of bias as any other form of documentary.
Ducosoaps are a development of the observational genre making them a hugely popular hybrid. What sets ducosoaps apart from their predecessors is their prioritisation of entertainment over social commentary. This type of documentary was made possible due to lightweight camera equipment meaning that the intrusion is minimal and forces the film-maker to become part of the story.
Ducosoaps have an episodic, soap-like structure, with several interweaving plot lines. Each of the plot lines involve different characters, of which normally consist of about 3 minutes air time before moving onto the next. The shallowness of the genre has prompted criticism. They are interested in the ordinary but reach a level of success which they create and promote ‘stars’. This particular genre tells us nothing about society, it only tells us about individuals who are very aware that they are on television.
In some cases, it has been known for characters to become famous, such as the singer Jane MacDonald who went on to host her own television show on BBC1 which led to her becoming a very successful recording artist.
An example of a reality television programme which is well known is Big Brother which has become a huge success worldwide. Factual television is now characterised by a high degree of hybridisation between different programme types. This may sometimes be referred to as ‘infotainment’ which is a combination of entertainment and the provision of useful information. Throughout British television schedules, factual programming increased between 1989 and 1999.
The well-known term ‘reality TV’ has become used to describe the most high-impact of the new factual television. This term was first applied to news magazine programmes based around emergency services activities. It has then gone on to describe talk shows, docusoaps and ‘constructed’ documentaries.
Since the first wave of factual programming based on the emergency services, the term ‘reality TV’ has widened. It is now used popularly to describe programmes of which use ordinary people filmed in a first person confessional style. It would seem that in an image-saturated culture there is desire for visual realism.
This style of documentary acknowledges the presence of the camera and crew. The easily portable equipment used meant that post-dubbing was no longer required and allowed the film maker to speak directly to his/ her subjects; this was generally in the form of an interview. This means that the focus is on the exchange of information rather than the creation of an objective view.
Audiences may read interactive documentaries as being more honest and real as they do not disguise the camera and crew. However, this is a manipulation to the audience as the interviewer sets the agenda by asking ‘loaded’ questions and choosing who to interview.
Reconstruction and re-enactments are just as old as documentary itself. Drama documentaries arouse much debate because unless based on transcripts, they are even more open to bias and interpretation than other forms of documentaries.
Reconstruction continues to play a role within much documentary programming.
'docudrama'-fictional story that uses techniques of documentary to reinforce its claim for realism.
'dramadoc'-documentary reconstruction of actual events using techniques taken from fiction cinema.
The purpose and effect of the techniques used is more important than the labelling.
An example of a current affairs style documentary is Newsnight. the meaning of current affairs is that this type of documentary debates the news itself. These are journalist-led programmes, which have the aim of addressing the news and political agenda in more depth that the news bulletins allow. The emphasis is on the investigatory and the political, seeking out atrocity and political scandal.
Documentary footage is rarely broadcasted without being edited showing that the documentary subjects are in the film-maker's hands and things may be changed according to situations they may be put in. It could become a problem if the film-maker doesn't balance their responsibilities to those who appear in the programme.
Editing is an area of difficulty because any documentary can only be a representation of a particular subject.
Factual accuracy is vital for current affairs documentaries: responsibility to the audience outweighs responsibility to the subjects of the programme.
The relationship between programme makers and their subjects varies: they can be reporting on their subjects, investigating them, or observing them.
BBC and ITC guidelines affect the final edit of any programme.
What is a documentary?
A documentary focuses on questions actual people and events often in a social context, this places the audience in a position where they are able to form their own opinion of what we are seeing.
They present factual information about the world. During documentaries on screen labels such as a person’s name or job title are shown in order to make it more believable that the events actually happened to the audience and that the people are real.
Documentary makers use a number of devices when presenting information. Such as:
· Recording events as they happen
· Some events may be staged for the camera, e.g. historical events
· Information may be presented using visual aids, e.g. maps
Complication film- wherew the film is made up of an assembly archive images such as newereel and footage.
· Interview or ‘talking heads’ - where testimonies are recorded about people, events or social movements.
· Direct cinema – where an event is recorded ‘as it happens’ with minimal interference from the film-maker.
Documentaries often use a narrative form, meaning that they tell us a story. For this to happen there needs to be good characters, tension and point of view. Modern documentaries are less scripted than their predecessors and appear more observational such as Big Brother which results in the audience being placed in the position of a voyeur.
Documentaries also use parallelism, meaning asking the audience to draw parallels between characters, settings and situations.
Frequently features a narrator and a device which enables the audience to receive plot information. The most common is the non-character narrator also known as the voice-of-god who remains anonymous, claiming to tell the audience the story.
Lighting and camera work
The source of lighting in a documentary usually originates naturally from the environment being filmed.
The most commonly used camera work is hand-held camera work meaning there is no need for a tripod or dolly. This is because the operator may not want smooth camera work as it may seem unrealistic to the audience whereas the shaky shots make the documentary seem more authentic and real.
Editing is a very important part to any film as it is what brings everything together meaning that any film or documentary relies upon the editing. Below are several types of edit available:
· Fade out – when an image gradually darkens into blackness.
· Fade in – the opposite of fade out meaning the image lightens from blackness.
· Dissolve – when the end of the shot is briefly superimposed with the beginning of the next.
· Wipe – when a shot is replaced by another using a line which moves across the screen.
Diegetic sound is used aswell as non-diegetic sound. Documentaries rely heavy on non-diegetic sound in order to prompt the audience to respond in a certain way.
Documentaries are a necessary social vehicle used to inform the public opinion. The documentary genres allow for the expression of a point of view.